I’m Jon, a coffee enthusiast. I make several different types of coffee and espresso drinks throughout the week, and I recently bought some green beans to roast myself. And I made this guide to teach you how to do it.
So let’s get started.
- You can roast green/raw coffee beans at home with common appliances– stove top, oven, popcorn machine, air fryer, or smoker.
- You can buy a coffee bean roasting machine to get the best and most even roast.
- All methods are great ways to roast coffee beans, but a roasting machine is the quickest and easiest.
How To Roast Coffee Beans At Home
Roasting coffee beans at home is a great way to save money and achieve the perfect flavor.
To get started, you’ll need to buy green coffee beans, have a method to heat/roast the beans, and have something to catch the chaff (the outer layer of the bean that comes off during roasting).
Buy Raw Coffee Beans
The first step is to choose quality green coffee beans. If possible, try to find a local roaster who can help you pick the right beans for your needs. Alternatively, you can purchase green coffee beans online.
Choose a Roasting Method
Next, you’ll need to determine how you are roasting your beans. There are three standard methods of home roasting: hot air popcorn popper, stovetop pan/skillet, oven, or an electric drum roaster/coffee roasting machine.
Coffee Bean Roasting Method 1: Stove Top
The stovetop method of roasting coffee beans is one of the simplest and most cost-effective ways to roast your own beans. All you need is a heavy-bottomed skillet or pan, green coffee beans, and a heat source.
To begin, preheat your skillet or pan on medium-high heat. Once the pan is hot, add a few tablespoons of green coffee beans and stir continuously. The beans will start to darken in color as they roast.
Keep stirring until the beans reach your desired roast level. This can take 5-15 minutes, depending on your heat source and chosen roast level. Once the beans finish roasting, remove them from the skillet immediately.
Coffee Bean Roasting Method 2: Oven
The oven method of roasting coffee beans is one of the most common methods used for home roasting. Prepare a baking sheet, green coffee beans, and your oven.
Preheat your oven to 500°F (260°C). Once the oven is hot, spread a single layer of green coffee beans onto the baking sheet. Place the baking sheet into the oven and roast for 10-15 minutes. Keep an eye on the beans, as they may start to burn if you leave them for too long.
Coffee Bean Roasting Method 3: Popcorn Machine
Hot-air poppers are a great way to roast coffee beans at home. All you need is a hot-air popcorn popper, green coffee beans, and something to catch the chaff.
To begin, preheat your popcorn popper on high heat. Once the popper is hot, add a few tablespoons of green coffee beans and turn it on.
As the beans roast, you will hear them making popping sounds, similar to popcorn. Keep stirring the beans until they reach a light, medium or dark roast.
This takes about 5-10 minutes, but it could take more or less depending on the size of your popper, the number of coffee beans, and your desired roast level.
When the beans finish roasting, turn off the popper, pour them onto a plate, bowl, or jar, and let them cool completely before using them.
Coffee Bean Roasting Method 4: Coffee Roasting Machine
Coffee roasting machines are the most sophisticated and accurate method of home coffee roasting. However, they can get pricey– if you don’t want to spend the extra cash to get one, use one of the previous methods instead.
Once your coffee roasting machine and supplies are ready, preheat the machine to your desired roasting temperature (usually between 350-450°F). Then, add the green beans and begin roasting.
The machine will do most of the work for you; you only need to monitor the beans and make adjustments as needed. Depending on the model, you can adjust the temperature, time, and other settings to achieve your desired roast level.
Once your beans reach your desired roast level, turn off the machine and transfer the coffee beans into a container for cooling.
What Not to Do While Roasting Coffee At Home
Now that we reviewed the various methods for roasting your own coffee beans, here are some tips on what to avoid during the process.
Don’t Leave Your Roaster Unattended
Roasting coffee requires constant attention and monitoring to ensure the beans are perfectly roasted. Leaving your roaster unattended can lead to uneven roasting or even burning of the beans.
Don’t Overload Your Roaster
While it may be tempting to roast a large batch of beans at once, overloading your roaster can lead to uneven roasting and damage your machine. Stick to the recommended batch size for your roaster to ensure even roasting.
Don’t Rush the Roasting Process
Roasting coffee is a slow process that requires patience. Rushing the process can lead to uneven roasting and a less flavorful cup of coffee.
Don’t Forget to Ventilate
Roasting coffee produces smoke, so it’s important to ventilate your roasting area to prevent smoke buildup. Make sure to use a well-ventilated area or invest in a roaster with a built-in ventilation system.
Don’t Store Roasted Beans Too Soon
After roasting, coffee beans need time to rest and release CO2 before they can be brewed. 
Storing freshly roasted beans too soon can lead to uneven extraction and a bitter taste. Wait 4-6 hours after you finish roasting to store the beans.
Don’t Grind Your Beans Too Soon
Grinding your beans too soon after roasting can also lead to uneven extraction and a bitter taste because the internal oils are still drying as the beans cool. Wait at least 24 hours after roasting before grinding your beans.
Don’t Use Dirty Equipment
Dirty equipment can lead to off-flavors in your coffee. Make sure to clean your roaster and grinder regularly to ensure the best possible cup of coffee.
Where to Buy Green Coffee Beans for Roasting
You can find green coffee beans in many different places, from local specialty grocery stores to online retailers.
When shopping for green coffee beans, look for sustainably sourced and freshly roasted options. The fresher the beans, the better your roast will be!
How Long Does it Take to Roast Coffee Beans?
The amount of time it takes to roast coffee beans depends on the method you use. Generally, home roasting takes between 12-25 minutes, depending on the size of the batch and desired roast level.
- Light roast takes the shortest time
- Medium roast takes the second shortest
- Dark roast takes the longest
Coffee roasting machines are usually set for a specific length of time and temperature, so they tend to finish faster (usually 12-15 minutes).
How To Roast Coffee Beans in an Air Fryer
Air fryers are an excellent tool for roasting coffee beans. The air fryer’s heat and air circulation capabilities provide a consistent roast, while the see-through lid lets you easily monitor the progress of your batch.
Here are the steps to roast coffee beans in an air fryer:
- Preheat your air fryer to 375°F (190 °C).
- Place the green beans in the basket and spread them out evenly (in a single layer).
- Set a timer for 12 minutes and place the basket in the air fryer.
- Check on the beans every few minutes to ensure they roast evenly.
- When the beans turn to a light, medium, or dark color (depending on your roast level preference), remove them from the air fryer and let them cool before grinding.
How To Roast Coffee Beans With Flavor
To add flavor to your coffee beans, you can roast them with spices, herbs, or even fruits!
To start, combine 1-2 tablespoons of your chosen flavoring with 1/4 cup of beans before roasting. For example, you could combine one tablespoon of ground cinnamon and two teaspoons of cocoa powder with the beans for a chocolate-cinnamon flavor.
For best results, use an air fryer or other roasting machine that allows you to monitor the progress of your batch.
How To Roast Coffee Beans For Espresso
For espresso, you should aim for a dark roast. To roast coffee beans for espresso, you can use a hot air popcorn popper, stovetop pan/skillet, oven, an electric drum roaster/coffee roasting machine, or an air fryer.
However, you should roast the beans longer and at a higher temperature.
Different roasting methods require different temperatures and times.
For example, an air fryer typically requires a temperature of 375°F (190 °C) for 12 minutes. For the oven, set the temperature to 450°F (232 °C) and keep the beans in for 25 minutes.
Or use a stovetop pan or electric drum roaster that reaches 460°F (229 °C) for 30 minutes.
How To Roast Coffee Beans in a Smoker
To roast coffee beans in a smoker, you will need wood chips, an aluminum pan or pie tin, and fresh green coffee beans.
Begin by preheating your smoker to 350°F (177 °C).
Place your wood chips in the smoker and wait for them to begin smoking. Put the pan or pie tin on top of the wood chips. Then, pour in the green coffee beans so they are spread out in an even, single layer. Close the lid of the smoker and leave it closed while roasting.
Check on your beans every 5 minutes or so and stir them to ensure even roasting. Once they reach a dark brown color, you can remove them from the smoker and let them cool before grinding.
Smoking coffee beans adds a unique, smoky flavor to the final product that can be enjoyed as a single-origin espresso or as part of your favorite blend.
Here are some common questions about roasting coffee beans at home.
How Do I Roast My Own Coffee Beans?
You can roast your own coffee beans by heating green (raw) beans in an oven, popcorn machine, stovetop, air fryer, or smoker.
The temperature and how long you roast them depends on your roasting device and your desired roast level (light, medium, dark).
Is It Hard to Roast Coffee Beans at Home?
No, roasting your own coffee beans is not hard. Depending on the device you use, it can be as simple as setting a timer and monitoring the progress of your batch until you reach the desired roast level.
Many roasting machines allow for preset temperatures and times, making the process even easier. Alternatively, you can follow the steps above to roast them with an air fryer, oven, popcorn machine, stovetop, etc.
Can I Roast My Own Coffee Beans In The Oven?
Yes, you can roast your own coffee beans in the oven. Start by preheating your oven to 500°F (260°C). Spread the green coffee beans in an even layer on a baking sheet and place it inside the oven.
Let them roast for 10-15 minutes, stirring every 5 minutes or so to ensure even roasting. Once they reach a light, medium, or dark brown color (depending on the roast you want), remove them from the oven and let them cool before grinding.
How Long Do You Roast Coffee Beans For?
How long you roast coffee beans depends on the roast level you desire and the device you are using. Generally, lighter roasts require less roasting time, while darker roasts require more time.
For example, an air fryer typically requires a temperature of 375°F (190 °C) for 12 minutes to achieve a light roast and 15-20 minutes for a dark roast. An oven at 450°F (232°C) should take the beans in for 25 minutes for a medium roast.
Does the roasting style affect the Caffeine content?
Yes, the roasting style (length) affects the coffee bean’s caffeine content. The longer you roast the beans, the more caffeine you will remove. However, the differences in caffeine content are negligible. 
So, dark roast beans have slightly less caffeine than light roast beans, but your body won’t know the difference.
Roasting coffee beans at home is a rewarding experience that can result in a delicious cup of coffee.
With the right equipment and technique, you can create a perfectly roasted coffee bean every time. Just remember to keep an eye on your roast, ventilate your roasting area, and store the beans properly after they roast completely.
For more on Coffee beans, read our guide on every type of coffee beans.